102 102 102

MSO OCEAN MINESWEEPERS

"Where the Fleet Goes, We've Been!"

Here is a list of all of the 102 MSO class Ocean Minesweepers Hull Numbers.
A total of 101 ships were built: Sixty-five were built for the United States and 36 were built for foreign governments, one ship was cancelled.

Within five years of the end of the Second World War, the U.S. Navy was designing a new generation of minesweepers. Far from springing from the unhappy experience of the North Korean mining at Wonsan, as is often claimed, the program was, in fact, well underway before the outbreak of the Korean War and was developed in reponse to new technology developed during the Second World War.2

The new sweeper would be the largest all-wood warship in the U.S. Navy. The hull of the MSO was designed by Philip L. Rhodes 1895-1974, (see Developments in Wooden Minesweeper Hull Design Since World War II). The hull form was adapted from the WW2 YMS and incorporated new construction techniques that BuShips eventually claimed saved about 50 percent of hull weight. The new type of hull construction proved so strong that the last ships of this basic design were lengthened from 171 feet to 190 feet (ABILITY Class). The really radical step was to add a variable degaussing system which could compensate automatically for variations in the ships position in the earth’s magnetic field due to roll and pitch as well as to course changes and were built with internal machinery and components of non-ferrous or non-magnetic materials for minimum magnetic signature. The sweeper was considered among the most complex and innovative ships in the navy, only matched in cost per ton by submarines2. These new ships were first designated as Minesweepers (AM); they were later reclassified on February 7, 1955 as Minesweeper, Ocean (MSO). Cost $3.5 million in 1951 [$1.6-$6.3 million 1951-1960]. They were capable of sweeping for moored and bottom contact, magnetic and acoustic mines.

These ships served our country well for over 41 years and over 50,000 "Iron Men" proudly served until the last one was decommissioned in 1994 and participated in almost every conflict that occurred during those years including the Lebanon Crisis, The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962, Vietnam (Operation "Market Time" and Operation "End Sweep"), Operation "Earnest Will", and operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. These ships earned numerous Awards and Campaign Participitation Awards. USS Leader was awarded a PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION, the only MSO [officially] awarded. We think they provided as important a role to insuring United States superiority on the seas and ashore as the Destroyers, Aircraft Carriers, Submarines and Battleships and ought to be remembered in the same fashion.

Since 1950 and up to 2004, fifteen of the nineteen ships either damaged or sunk by hostile weapons have been by enemy mines3.

During the 1987-88 Operation "Earnest Will" (the escort of the reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers), SIX active and reserve MSO's deployed to the Persian Gulf. Three West Coast MSO's: USS Enhance (MSO-437), USS Conquest (MSO-488), and USS Esteem (MSO-438), and three East Coast MSOs : USS Inflict (MSO-456), USS Fearless (MSO-442), and USS Illusive (MSO-448). Both ships and crews performed extremely well in very demanding conditions, clearing hundreds of mines from the international waterway. The Belgium Navy participated with two MSO's [hull 504 (Breydel M906) & hull 516 (Bovesse M909)]

During the Cold War the U.S. mine warfare concept was designed around a European war scenario which relied on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies to participate substantially in mine warfare operations. The Navy's MCM capabilities in the Persian Gulf War (1990-91) included the surface mine countermeasures capabilities of three 30-year-old minesweepers [USS Impervious (MSO-449), USS Leader (MSO-490), and USS Adroit (MSO-509) (Gulf War Stories)].

All United States ships of this class have been disposed of.
Four ships are still IN SERVICE for Taiwan and one? for Italy.
Former Crew Members Visit Taiwan Navy Base

This list is the most complete, accurate, detailed and up to date list of MSO information on the internet today.

Copyright © information compiled from Warship 1994, Combat Fleets of the World, Jane's Fighting Ships, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships, The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, Naval Vessel Register, and Han's World Military Power. Much THANKS to Piet Sinke, NAVPIC-Holland and Glen Clark, Navy Sea Systems Command for most of the scrapping information and Ron Reeves for updated U.S. decommissioning information!

2 Per Norman Friedman's article, The Cold War, Korea and the US Minesweepers, WARSHIP 1994

3 Wooden Ships and Iron Men, Cdr. David D. Bruhn, 2006.

Copyright© 2002-2007 Dick Lewis.
All rights reserved.

OCEAN MINESWEEPERS
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Moder-
nized
Decomm-
issioned
Fleet Reserve Status Date
&
Status
Additional Information
Agile 421 Luders Marine Construction Co., Stamford, Conn. 2/22/54 11/19/55 6/21/56
Commissioning
P 7/28/72 11/1/79
Disposed
Converted to Flagship,
The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962
Scrapped by Union Minerals & Alloy Corp., N.Y.,N.Y. $25,000. Removal date: 10/18/79
Aggressive 422 Luders Marine 5/25/51 10/4/52 11/25/53 7/2/71 5/1/80
Disposed
Shock Test
The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962
Sold to Rbt.E. Williams, Torrance, CA $44,000. Removal date:4/23/80
Ship Model Pictures
Avenge 423 Luders Marine 8/1/51 3/15/53 5/13/54 1/31/70 10/6/69
Fire*
Shipyard Fire
Scrapped by Steve B. Clemens, Miami Shores, FL $2,789. Removal date: 3/1/71
Bold 424 Norfolk Naval Shipyard,
Norfolk, Va.
12/12/51 3/14/53 9/25/53 7/2/71 6/1/81
Disposed
Scrapped by Tuscon One Hour Inc., Cincinnati, OH. $45,000. Removal date: 9/6/81 [Reported Taiwan transfer did not take place]
Bulwark 425 Norfolk Naval Shipyard 12/12/51 3/14/53 11/12/53 7/2/71 5/1/80
Disposed
Scrapped by Rbt E. Williams, Torrance, CA $44,000. Removal date: 4/23/80
Conflict
More Pictures
426 Fulton Shipyard, Antioch, Calif. 8/13/51 12/16/52 3/23/54 6/9/72
at 1730Z time
12/1/73
Disposed
Scrapped by Al Kidman, Wilmington, CA $32,501. Removal date: 1/22/74 from San Diego under tow of Beverly Gene to L.A., Calif
Constant
Constant
More Pictures
427 Fulton Shipyard 8/16/51 2/14/52 9/8/54 P 9/30/92
San Diego, CA
Decommissioning Ceremony
9/30/92
7/72 4/1/01
Disposed
Scrapped by Crowley Marine Removal date: 9/29/99, NO scrapping pictures available
Dash 428 Astoria Marine Construction Co.,
Astoria, Oreg.
7/2/51 9/20/52 8/14/53 P 10/1/82
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning Ceremony
10/1/82
y 12/1/83
Disposed
Scratch built model by Jim White
26-Jan-84 Scrap Sale, Wayne Hobbs, Huntington Beach, Calif, $22,229
Detector
More pictures
429 Astoria Marine 10/1/51 12/5/52 1/26/54 P 10/1/82
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning Ceremony
10/1/82
y 12/1/83
Disposed
26-Jan-84 Scrap Sale, Wayne Hobbs, Huntington Beach, Calif, $22,229
Direct 430 C. Hiltebrant Dry Dock Co., Kingston, N.Y. 2/2/52 5/27/53 7/9/54 10/1/82
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning
7/71 12/1/83
Disposed
26-Jan-84 Scrap Sale, Wayne Hobbs, Huntington Beach, Calif, $22,229
Dominant 431 Hiltenbrant Drydock 4/23/52 11/5/53 11/8/54 P 10/1/82
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning
y 12/1/83
Disposed
26-Jan-84 Scrap Sale, Wayne Hobbs, Huntington Beach, Calif, $22,229
Dynamic
Dynamic
Dynamic
More Pictures
432 Colberg Boat Works, Stockton, Calif. 10/31/51 12/17/52 12/15/53 P 7/1/71 8/1/74
Foreign
Military
Sale
Scratch built model by Doug Gramp
Loaned to Spain 7/1/71 as
Guadalete
To Spain as
Guadalete
M41 7/1/71 1998 Unknown Sold to Spain 7/7/74
Modernisation completed 1984-86
Engage
ex- Elusive
More Pictures
433 Colberg Boat Works 11/7/51 6/18/53 6/29/54 F 12/30/91
Mayport, FL
Decommissioning
8/74 5/17/02
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Mothball pictures,
Additional info
Embattle 434 Colberg Boat Works 11/14/51 8/27/53 11/16/54 7/24/72
or 9-22-72
Long Beach
11/1/76
Disposed
Scrapped by Glenn Dobkins, Miami, Fla $32,769.
Removal date: 12/21/76
Not transferred to Peru or Pakistan as reported
FORMERLY
IN PRIVATE HANDS
Endurance
More Pictures
435 J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash. 1/28/52 8/9/52 5/19/54 P 7/1/72 12/1/73
Disposed
Collision with HMS Rorqurl
27-Jan-74, Scrap Sale, Al Kidman, Wilmington, CA, $32,501
Energy 436 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding 3/3/52 2/13/53 7/16/54
Commissioning
7/5/72 1972
Foreign
Military
Sale
Scratch built model by Ron Perkins
Loaned to Philippines 7/5/72
To Philippines as
Davao Del Norte
PM91 6/1/77
Disposed
Returned 1-Jul-77, 8-Jul-77, Scrap Sale, Ming Hing & Co, Rowloon, Hong Kong, $26,100
Enhance 437 Martinolich Shipbuilding Co.,
San Diego, Calif.
7/12/52 10/11/52 4/16/55
&
8/27/71
F 10/30/701
&
12/31/91
7/74 8/1/00
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Operation "Ernest Will"
Scrapped by Crowley Marine, Removal date: 3-20-2000
Fire Damage
Fire pictures
Scrap Pictures
PiggyBack Minesweepers
Esteem 438 Martinolich Shipbuilding Co. Award Date
8/7/51
9/1/52
12/20/52 9/10/55
Commissioning
&
8/1/71
Recommissioning
F 9/30/701
&
9/30/91
10/72 8/1/00
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Operation "Ernest Will"
Scrapped by Crowley Marine, removal date:3-20-2000
Scrap Pictures
Significant Firsts
Excel
More Pictures
439 Higgins Corp., New Orleans, La. 2/9/53 9/25/53 2/24/55
Commissioning
P 9/30/92
San Francisco, CA
7/72 4/1/00
Disposed
Scrapped by Crowley Marine in January, 2000.
Fire pictures
Scrapping pictures
Exploit
More Pictures
440 Higgans 12/28/51 4/10/53 3/31/54
Commissioning
P 12/16/93
Little Creek, VA
Decommissioning Ceremony
12/15/93
7/73 5/17/02
Disposed
Equipped with prototype SSN-2 precise-navigation system in 1975 for new MCM class
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Mothball pictures
Exultant 441 Higgans 5/22/52 6/6/53 6/22/54 F 6/30/93
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning Ceremony
6/25/93
7/72 5/17/02
Disposed
Fire
In Memory of Five Fallen Shipmates
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Mothball pictures
Fearless 442 Higgans 7/23/52 7/17/53 9/22/54 F 10/31/90 7/74 12/1/92
Disposed
Operation "Ernest Will"
4-Dec-92, Scrapped 11/93, Seawitch Salvage, Baltimore, MD, $6,000
Fidelity 443 Higgans 12/15/52 8/21/53 1/19/55 F 5/19/89
Decommissioning
8/16/90
Disposed
Test ship for the SQQ-30 sonar
Scrap Sale, Wyns Hoggs, $13,775
Firm
More Pictures
444 J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash. 4/16/52 4/15/53 10/12/54
Commissioning
7/5/72 1972
Foreign
Military
Sale
Converted to Flagship in 1955
Loaned to Philippines 7/5/72
To Philippines as
Davao Del Sur
PM92 6/1/77
Disposed
Returned 1-Jul-77
8-Jul-77, Scrap Sale, Ming Hing & Co, Kowloon, Hong Kong, $21,100
Force 445 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding 8/26/52 6/26/53 1/4/55 F 4/24/73 4/24/73
Sunk
Force Sinking
Operation "End Sweep"
Fire & Sunk
Fortify 446 Seattle Ship Building and Drydocking Co., Seattle, Wash. 11/30/51 2/14/53 7/16/54
Commissioning
F 8/31/92
Little Creek, VA
Decommissioning
8/74 5/17/02
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Mothball pictures
Guide
More Pictures
447 Seattle Ship Building 2/20/53 4/17/54 3/15/55 6/9/72
at 1730Z time
12/1/73
Disposed
Scrapped by Al Kidman, Wilmington, CA $32,501. Removal date: 1/22/74 from San Diego under tow of Beverly Gene to L.A., Calif
Illusive 448 Martinolich Ship Building Co., San Diego, Calif. 10/23/51 7/12/52 11/14/53
&
???
F 11/30/701
&
3/30/90
Mayport, FL
2/9/93
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Operation "Ernest Will"
12-May-93, Scrapped 6/95, SeaWitch Salvage, Baltimore, MD, $12,000
SCRAP PICTURES
Impervious
More Pictures
449 Martinolich 11/18/51 8/29/52 7/15/54 F 12/12/91
Decommissioning
Little Creek, VA
8/74 5/17/02
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Mothball pictures,
More info,
Desert Storm
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Decomm-
issioned
Date
Status
Additional Information
France
Berneval
450
M613
Bellingham Shipyards Co.,
Bellingham, Wash.
1/16/52 10/15/52 1/19/54 1988 1987
Struck
France
Bir Hacheim
451
M614
Bellingham Shipyard 3/21/52 1/10/53 3/16/54 9/70 To Uruguay 4/9/70
To Uruguay as
Maldonado
MS 33 To Uruguay
4/9/70
Stricken
1979
9/18/79
Scrapped
Scrap sale $80,000
France
Garigliano
452
M617
Bellingham Shipyard 8/15/52 8/20/53 5/19/54 12/8/88 7/3/96
Disposed
Target
France
Alencon
453
M612
Bellingham Shipyard 11/1/52 4/11/53 7/16/54 Unk Storage Struck in 1983
Now in a ships-cemetery in "Landevennec" near by "Brest" in France
France
Dompaire
454
M616
Bellingham Shipyard 1/15/53 6/5/53 9/01/54 1/20/88 9/28/86
Disposed
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis- sioned Moder- nized Decomm- issioned Fleet Reserve Date
Status
Additional Information
Implicit
Implicit
More Pictures
455 Wilmington Boat Works Inc.,
Wilmington, Calif.
10/29/51 8/1/53 3/10/54 P 9/30/94
(Last MSO
in Commission)

Tacoma, WA
Decommissioning Ceremony
9/30/94

This decommissioning marks THE END OF AN ERA. With IMPLICIT's passing goes the last of the U.S. MSOs.

7/72 9/30/94
Foreign
Military
Sale
***
PRESIDENTIAL
UNIT
CITATION

***

Fire
Sold to Taiwan
ExcessDefenseArticles sale 19 Aug 1994 $2,412,812
To Taiwan as
Yung Yang
M1306 03/01/95
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
Active ACTIVE Extensively overhauled
following transfer
STILL IN SERVICE
as of 12/2001 and have been re-planked
Former Crew Members Visit Taiwan Navy Base
Inflict 456 Wilmington Boat 10/29/51 10/6/53 5/11/54 F 3/30/90
Little Creek, VA
Decommissioning Ceremony
8/74 12/1/92
Disposed
Operation "End Sweep"
Operation "Ernest Will"
Stayed in commission during rebuild 12/30/68-2/10/71.
Scrap sale 4-Dec-92, Scrapped 11/93, Seawitch Salvage, Baltimore, MD, $12,000
Loyalty
More Pictures
457 Wilmington Boat 11/9/51 11/22/53 6/11/54 Scheduled for decommissioning
7/1/72
Striken 7-1-72
Still in commission 3-72
12/1/73
Disposed
15-Jan-74, Scrap Sale, Robert D. Perry, Valleajo, CA, $32,223
Lucid 458 Higgans 3/16/53 11/14/53 5/4/55 P 12/23/701
San Diego
11/1/76
Disposed
30-Dec-76, Scrap Sale, W. Dean Kirkpatrick, San Francisco, CA, $40,250
IN PRIVATE HANDS
Nimble 459 Higgans 4/27/53 8/6/54 5/11/55 11/24/701
Charleston
6/1/81
Disposed
6-Sep-81, Scrap Sale, Tuscon One Hour Inc., Cincinnati, OH, $45,002
Notable 460 Higgans 6/8/53 10/15/54 6/8/55 C 5/14/701 2/1/71
Disposed*
30-Aug-71, Scrap Sale, Charles, Gural, Rahway, NJ, $2,800
Observer 461 Higgans 7/20/53 10/19/54 8/31/55 7/1/72
7/28/72
Charleston
4/1/79
Disposed
21-Jul-79, Scrap Sale, Union Minerals & Alloys Corp, NY,NY $20,250
Pinnacle 462 Higgans 8/24/53 1/3/55 10/21/55 11/24/701
Charleston
2/1/78
Disposed
INACTSHIPFAC, Orange, Texas
accepted custody 04-Mar-71.
Ship Moored at facility Pier Nine.
1-May-78, Scrap Sale, C.B.Herter Jr., Hopewell, VA, $26,491
Pivot
More Pictures
463 Wilmington Boat 3/31/52 1/9/54 7/12/54 P 7/1/71
6/19/71
8/1/74
Foreign
Military
Sale
Loaned 7/1/71 to Spain as
GUADALMEDINA M42
To Spain as
Guadalmedina
M42 7/1/71 1999 unknown Sold to Spain 8/1/74
Pluck
More Pictures
464 Wilmington Boat 3/31/52 2/6/54 8/11/54 P 11/29/90
Decommissioning Ceremony
11/29/90
7/72 9/2/92
Disposed
Test ship in the mid-1970s for the SSN-2 precise navigation system for the MCM & MHC classes.
Scrap sale 25-Sep-92, Scrapped 5/94, NorthWest Demolition, Inc., Wilsonville, OR, $19,000.
Parts For Sale:
503-638-6900
Prestige 465 Wilmington Boat 4/15/52 4/30/54 9/11/54 8/23/58 8/23/58
Grounded*
Prime
More Pictures
466 Wilmington Boat 12/30/52 5/27/54 10/11/54 11/6/701 11/1/76
Disposed
Thailand, Planned but Cancelled
7-Jan-77, Scrap Sale, Edward Hixson, Los Alamitos, CA, $26,769
Reaper 467 Wilmington Boat 5/15/52 6/25/54 11/10/54 9/22/72 11/1/76
Disposed
Thailand, Planned but Cancelled
7-Jan-77, Scrap Sale, Edward Hixson, Los Alamitos, CA, $26,769
Rival 468 Luders Marine 2/1/52 8/15/53 9/3/54 C 6/10/701 2/1/71
Disposed*
The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962
31-Aug-71, Scrap Sale, Charles Gural, Rahway, NJ, $2,700
Sagacity 469 Luders Marine 10/6/52 2/20/54 1/20/55 10/1/701 10/1/70
Grounded*
1-Mar-71, Scrap Sale, Steve B. Clemens, Miami Shores, Fl, $7,890
Salute 470 Luders Marine 3/17/53 8/14/54 5/4/55 C 5/14/701 2/1/71
Disposed*
The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962
30-Aug-71, Scrap Sale, Charles Gural, Rahway, NJ, $1,700
Skill 471 Luders Marine Award Date=
11/2/51
8/17/53
4/23/55 11/7/55 12/15/701
Charleston
4/1/79
Disposed
INACTSHIPFAC, Orange, Texas
accepted custody 04-Mar-71.
Ship Moored at facility Pier Nine.
The Skill was cut up in Kearny, NJ in the 1983.
Scrap Info
Valor 472 Burger Boat Co.,
Manitowoc, Wis.
4/28/52 5/13/53 7/29/54 C 7/16/701 2/1/71
Disposed*
8/30/71, Scrap Sale, Charles Gural, Rahway, NJ $1,400
Vigor 473 Burger Boat Co. 6/16/52 6/24/53 11/8/54 4/4/72 8/1/74
Foreign
Military
Sale
Sold 4/4/72 to Spain as
GUADIANA M44
To Spain as
Guadiana
M44 4/4/72 11/1/1999 Scrapped Modernisation completed 1984-86
Vital 474 Burger Boat 10/31/52 8/12/53 6/9/55 9/27/72
or 9-22-72
Charleston
4/1/79
Disposed
Fire
21-Jul-79, Scrap Sale, Union Minerals & Alloys Corp, NY,NY, $25,250
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Decomm-
issioned
Date
Status
Additional Information
France
Mytho
475
M618
Bellingham Shipyard 3/3/53 9/25/53 10/20/54 1/20/88 9/28/89
Disposed
classified as a tender in 1965
France
Cantho
476
M615
Bellingham Shipyard 4/15/53 9/26/53 2/16/55 Unk Converted to A769 in 1976
France
Vinh Long
477
M619
Bellingham Shipyard 6/10/53 2/5/54 4/15/55 6/1/88 1992
Scrapped
Portugal
Sao Jorge
478
M415
Bellingham Ship Yard 8/26/53 4/30/54 4/24/55 1973 unk discarded in 1973
Portugal
Pico
479
M416
Bellingham Ship Yard 10/1/53 6/18/54 6/1/55 1974 1974
To
Belgium
Transfered to Belgium Navy in 1974 for spare parts only.
To Belgium as
Spare parts
479 Spare parts
only
1974
Sunk Transfered to Belgium Navy in 1974 for spare parts only, Then sold in 1984 to the Sea Scouts,
Currently (11/2001) sunk and laying in Ostend harbor, Belgium
Netherlands
Onversaagd
480
M884
Astoria Marine 9/24/52 4/11/53 5/27/54 6/23/76 7/31/79
Disposed
Reclassified in 1966 A854
Sold as refitted hydrographic ship in 1979
Sold to Liguria Martime Ltd, Sittingbourne for UK P 47,150 for scrapping
Netherlands
Onbevreesd
481
M885
Astoria Marine 12/8/52 11/7/53 9/21/54 5/28/82 3/17/89
Disposed
Reclassified in 1966
A855
Sold to Heuvelman Staal, Veenendaal for US$111,000 for scrapping in Sgravendeel, Holland
Netherlands
Onvervaard
482
M888
Astoria Marine 4/11/52 3/6/54 1/31/55 Stricken
5/15/82
11/14/84
Disposed
Reclassified in 1966 A858
1/18/1985 towed from Vlissingen where she had been laid up for years.
Sold to Deans Marine Ltd, Kent, England for UK P 51,555 for scrapping.
Netherlands
Onverschrokken

USS 483
(Paul Haaze's site)

Mercuur Museum Web Site

483
M886
Peterson Builders Inc.,
Sturgeon Bay, Wisc.
2/19/52 1/17/53 7/22/54 3/1/72 4/24/93
Museum
Reclassified 1966 A 856
Converted to Torpedo Tender ship and renamed Mercuur in 1972
Mercuur transferred to the Nautisch Kwartier museum in Amsterdam. Due to bankrupty the Mercuur was returned to the Dutch Navy on 10/13/1991.
The ship was acquired again by a museum and is now on display in Holland.
Mercuur Museum Web Site
Netherlands
Onvermoeid
484
M887
Peterson Builders 2/27/52 5/2/53 1/31/55 10/1/71 1/8/75
Disposed
Reclassified in 1966
A857
Towed 1/18/1973 from Den Heller Navy Base to Scotland.
Sold to Ross & Son, Girvan, Scotland for US$39,000 for scrapping.
Netherlands
Onverdroten
485
M889
Peterson Builders 2/17/52 8/22/53 11/22/54 Stricken
5/15/82
9/18/84
Disposed
Reclassified in 1966 A859
Sold to W. Mantel, Amsterdam for DFL 333,564 for scrapping.
Portugal
Graciosa
486
M417
Burger Boat Co. 5/16/53 11/19/53 8/15/55 1973
Disgarded
Portugal
Corvo
487
M418
Burger Boat Co. 8/18/53 7/28/54 11/23/55 1973
Disgarded
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis -sioned Moder -nized Decomm -issioned Fleet Re- serve Date
Status
Additional Information
Conquest
More Pictures
488 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Award Date=
12/29/52
3/26/53
5/20/54 7/20/55
&
10/21/71
F 10/30/701
&
6/29/94
Decommissioning Ceremony
6/30/70
9/72 8/3/94
Foreign
Military
Sale
Operation "End Sweep"
Operation "Ernest Will"
Sold to Taiwan
EDA sale 19 Aug 1994 $4,143,779
To Taiwan as
Yung Tzu
M1307 03/01/95
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
Active ACTIVE Extensively overhauled
following transfer
STILL IN SERVICE
as of 12/2001 and have been re-planked
Former Crew Members Visit Taiwan Navy Base
Gallant
More Pictures
489 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Award Date=
12/29/52
5/21/53
6/4/54 9/14/55
Commissioning
P 4/29/94
Treasure Is.,CA
Decommissioning Ceremony
4/29/94
7/72 8/3/94
Foreign
Military
Sale
Sold to Taiwan
EDA sale 19 Aug 1994 $2,161,307
To Taiwan as
Yung Ku
M1308 03/01/95
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
Active ACTIVE Extensively overhauled
following transfer
STILL IN SERVICE
as of 12/2001 and have been re-planked
Former Crew Members Visit Taiwan Navy Base
Leader
More Pictures
490 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Award Date=
12/29/52
9/22/53
11/15/54 11/16/55
&
2/11/72
F 11/30/70
&
3/18/92(NVR)
or
12/12/91
Decommissioning
Little Creek, VA
4/15/94
Disposed
***
PRESIDENTIAL
UNIT
CITATION

***

Operation "End Sweep"
18-Aug-94, Scrapped 7/96, NR Acquisition, N.Y., Wilmington Resources, Wilmington, NC for $28,880
Piggyback Minesweepers,
Desert Storm
Persistent
More Pictures
491 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding 6/17/54 4/23/55 2/3/56 P 7/1/71
4/26/71
8/1/74
Foreign
Military
Sale
Loaned 7/1/71 to Spain as
GUADALQUIVIR M43
To Spain as
Guadalquivir
M43 7/1/71 2001 unk Sold to Spain 8-1-74
Modernisation completed 1984-86
Pledge
More Pictures
492 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Award Date=
12/29/52
6/24/54
7/20/55 4/20/56 P 1/31/94
Bremerton, WA
Decommissioning Ceremony
1/31/94
7/72 8/3/94
Foreign
Military
Sale
Sold to Taiwan
EDA sale 19 Aug 1994 $2,161,307
To Taiwan as
Yung Teh
M1309 03/01/95
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
Active ACTIVE Extensively overhauled
following transfer
STILL IN SERVICE
as of 12/2001 and have been re-planked
Former Crew Members Visit Taiwan Navy Base
Stalwart
More Pictures
493 Broward Marine Inc.,
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
6/22/54 12/3/55 4/23/57 8/24/66
Fire 6/25/66
6/66
Fire*
Final Personnel Diary Entry
Sank at pier from fire, raised, Scrapped
16-Dec-68 Scrap Sale $unk
Sturdy
More Pictures
494 Broward Marine 10/15/54 1/28/56 Preliminary
Acceptance
Trials
10/23/57
Commissioning
7/1/71
Charleston
4/1/78
Disposed
Custody transferred to USS Salinan
13-JUL-71 for tow from
Chasn to INACTSHIPFAC NORVA.
ETA NORVA 16-JUL-71
1-May-78, Scrap Sale,
C.B. Herter Jr., Hopewell, VA, $27,019
1959 Med Cruise
Travel Log
Swerve
More Pictures
495 Broward Marine 12/20/54 11/1/55 7/27/57 7/1/71
Charleston
2/1/78
Disposed
Custody transferred to USS Salinan
13-JUL-71 for tow from Chasn
to INACTSHIPFAC NORVA.
ETA NORVA 16-JUL-71
Sold for scrapping
Venture 496 Broward Marine 1/11/55 11/27/56 2/3/58
Ft. Lauderdale
P 8/2/71
Charleston
2/1/78
Disposed
Custody of Venture accepted
upon arrival INACTSHIPFAC NORVA
01-NOV-71. Berthed Pier "A", South, Southgate Annex,
1-May-78, Scrap Sale, C.B. Herter Jr., Airports Rd., Hopewell, VA. $27,019
Cancelled 497 Never Awarded Cancelled Cancelled
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Decomm-
issioned
Date
Status
Additional Information
Norway
Lagen
498
M950
Bellingham Shipyard 2/11/54 8/13/54 9/27/55 04/14/66 Belgium Lagen and Namsen, which were classified as sea-going minesweepers, got approximately ll years of duty in the Norwegian Navy. In May of 1966 both vessels were transferred to the Belgian Navy in exchange for three coast-going minesweepers. Then to Belgium 4/14/66 as A.F. Dufour
To Belgium as
A.F. Dufour
M903 04/14/66 1999 Jan/Feb 2007
Scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1974
Norway
Namsen
499
M951
Bellingham Shipyard 4/25/54 10/15/54 11/1/55 04/14/66 Belgium Lagen and Namsen, which were classified as sea-going minesweepers, got approximately ll years of duty in the Norwegian Navy. In May of 1966 both vessels were transferred to the Belgian Navy in exchange for three coast-going minesweepers. Transfered to Belgium 4/14/66 as De Brouwer
To Belgium as
De Brouwer
M904 04/14/66 07/93 Jan/Feb 2007
Scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1973
France
Berlaimont
500
M620
Bellingham Shipyard 6/23/54 1/7/55 1/31/56 1989 1989
Struck
France
Origny
501
M621
Bellingham Shipyard 8/17/54 2/25/55 2/14/56 7/1/82 1/14/85
Disposed
Renumbered A 640 1961-62
France
Autun
502
M622
Bellingham Shipyard 10/15/54 5/6/55 4/4/56 7/27/79 1985
Disposed
scrapped
Belgium
Belgium MSO's Web Site
M907 Artevelde
Artevelde
503
M907
Tacoma Boatbuilding Co.
1840 Marine View Dr
Tacoma, WA 98421
10/15/53 6/19/54 12/15/55 2/1/85 unknown Removed from duty Feb 1, 1985
Scrapped in Amsterdam, Holland
Belgium
Breydel
Breydel
504
M906
Tacoma Boatbuilding Co. 11/25/54 3/25/55 1/24/56 7/1993 4/2006
Scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1976
Removed from duty January, 1993.
Scrapped in Boom Belgium
France
Baccarat
505
M623
Tacoma Boatbuilding Co. 6/25/54 8/6/55 4/4/56 Unk Storage Struck in 1993
Now in a ships-cemetery in "Landevennec" near by "Brest" in France
Italy
Storione
506
M5431
Martinolich Shipbuilding Co. 8/18/53 11/13/54 2/22/56 Stricken
3/1/97
1993
Struck
Converted for offshore Patrol duty.
Italy
Salmone
507
M5430
Martinolich Shipbuilding Co. 9/16/53 2/19/55 6/5/56 Stricken
3/31/96
1996
Struck
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis -sioned Moder -nized Decomm -issioned Fleet Re- serve Date
Status
Additional Information
Acme 508 Frank L. Sample Jr., Inc., Shipyard, Boothbay Harbor, Maine 11/16/54 6/23/55 9/27/56 P 11/6/70 11/1/76
Disposed
6-Jan-77, Sold, Oskco Edwards, Capistrano Beach, CA, $30,000
Adroit
More Pictures
509 Frank L. Sample Award Date=
6/25/54
11/18/54
8/20/55 3/4/57 P 5/8/92(NVR)
or
12/12/91
Decommissioning
Little Creek, VA
7/73 4/15/94
Disposed
Scratch built model by Al Hines
18-Aug-94, Scrapped 5/95, Wilmington Resources, Inc.,Wilmington, N.C. $44,950
PiggyBack Minesweepers,
Desert Storm
Advance 510 Frank L. Sample 6/28/55 7/12/57 6/16/58 P 12/23/70
Long Beach, CA
Decommissioning Ceremony
12/23/70
11/1/76
Disposed
6-Jan-77, Sold, Oskco Edwards, Capistraniso Beach, CA, $40,010
IN PRIVATE HANDS
Affray 511 Frank L. Sample Award Date=
6/25/54
8/24/55
12/18/56 12/8/58 P 12/20/92
Newport, RI
Decommissioning Ceremony
12/10/92
Ceremony
7/73 5/17/02
Disposed
Mothball pictures,
Taiwan sale cancelled in 1993
Scrapped January 2002 by Baltimore Marine, Baltimore MD
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Decomm-
issioned
Date
Status
Additional Information
France
France
Narvik
512
M609
Peterson Builders 9/1/54 4/23/55 04/23/56 1988 1989
Struck
Renumbered A769 in 1976
France
Ouistreham
513
M610
Peterson Builders 10/21/54 7/30/55 9/21/26 Unk Storage Converted to A640 in 1962
Now in a ships-cemetery in "Landevennec" near by "Brest" in France
France
France
Colmar
514
M624
Peterson Builders 4/30/55 10/29/55 4/21/57 2/27/76 1985
Scrapped
Belgium
Belgium
MSO's
Web Site

Truffaut
515
M908
Tampa Marine Co.,
Tampa, Fla.
2/1/55 11/1/55 9/21/56 Decommed Jan/Feb 2007
Scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1976
Trials ship for Thomson Marconi Sterne multi-influence sweep for the new minesweeper class.
Belgium
Belgium
MSO's
Web Site

Bovesse
516
M909
Tampa Marine 4/1/55 2/8/56 1/25/57 3/93 Jan/Feb 2007
Scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1976
Italy
Sgombro
517
M5432
Tampa Marine 6/15/55 6/21/56 2/22/57 10/03/2000 unknown To reserve status 9/10/90.
Decommissioned 10/03/2000
Italy
Squalo
518
M5433
Tampa Marine 6/15/55 12/3/56 6/13/57 Active ACTIVE Converted for offshore patrol duty 1992-93, All minesweep gear removed, New bridge fitted.
STILL IN SERVICE
as of 9-2000.
Scheduled to be paid off in late 2000.
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis -sioned Moder -nized Decomm -issioned Fleet Re- serve Date
Status
Additional Information
Ability 519 Peterson Builders 3/5/56 12/29/56 8/4/58 C 6/70 2/1/71
Disposed*
Flagship,
The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962
3-Jan-72, Scrap Sale, Union Minerals & Alloys, NY,NY, $17,688
Alacrity
More Pictures
520 Peterson Builders 3/5/56 6/8/57 10/1/58 9/30/77
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning
7/1/78
Disposed
Flagship,
Modified for sonar test activities
and redesignated as (AG) on June 1, 1973
Minesweeping gear was removed, AN/SQR-15 TASS sonar system installed, fuel tanks modified, and habitability improved. The ship performed tests in the Caribbean.
27-Dec-79, Scrap Sale,
Ampol Wrecking & Dismantling Corp,
274 Communipaw Ave.,
New Jersey City, NJ 07304 $50,475
Assurance 521 Peterson Builders 1/28/57 8/31/57 11/21/58 9/30/77
Charleston, SC
Decommissioning
7/1/78
Disposed
Flagship,
Modified for sonar test activities
and redesignated as (AG) on March 1, 1973
Minesweeping gear was removed, AN/SQR-15 TASS sonar system installed, fuel tanks modified, and habitability improved. The ship performed tests in the Caribbean.
27-Dec-79, Scrap Sale, Ampol Wrecking & Dismantling Corp,
274 Communipaw Ave.,
New Jersey City, NJ 07304
Name Nbr Builder Keel Laid Launch Date Commis-
sioned
Decomm-
issioned
Date
Status
Additional Information
Belgium
Van Haverbeke M902
Belgium
MSO's
Web Site
522 Peterson Builders 3/2/59 10/25/59 11/7/60 unk 2002
scrapped
Converted to MHSO in 1975
Scrapped in 2002 in Amsterdam, Holland

1 Per Personnel Diary Entry: "Final Diary, No personnel remain on board".


If ANYBODY has ANYTHING they would like to add to this list please email me.
Thank you,
emailicon
Dick Lewis

SHIP CLASSES

There were twelve (12) ship classes
eleven (11) listed in DANFS, Vol. 5 and
Jane added the Berneval class that DANFS did not list

One hundred and one (101) ships were actually built

AS ORIGINALLY BUILT:
All had Diesel engines.
All were outfitted with One 40mm, single; Two .50cal machine guns
Foreign Classes did not list crew sizes.

(1) AGILE Class, Hull Number(s) 421, Length Overall: 172ft, Extreme Beam: 35ft, Displacement: 755 tons, Max. Draft: 10ft, Designed Accommodations: Off: 8,Enl: 70, Design speed: 14k, Engines: Packard, Designed Shaft Horsepower: 3040
There was only one ship in the Agile class, and that was Agile. She was unlike any other MSO, with V-16 Packards and 3200 SHP, not the V-12 Packards and 2400 SHP that most of the other MSO's had. She also had an 8 cylinder 250KW S/S generator instead of the 185KW S/S generator....Bob Adelwerth USN, Ret.

(53) AGGRESSIVE Class, 422-427,432-449,455-474,488-496, 172ft, 35ft, 775tons, 10ft, 5,65, 14k, Packard, 2280

(4) DASH Class, 428-431,172ft, 35ft, 775tons, 10ft, 8,70, 14k,GM, 1520

(5) AM 450 Class, France, 450-454,171ft, 35ft, 750tons, 10ft4", 15k,GM 1600

(10) BERNEVAL Class (per Janes), France, 475-477, 500-502, 505, 512-514, 171ft, 35ft, 700tons, 10.5ft, 13.5k, GM 1600

(4) AM 478 Class, Portugal, 478-479,486-487,172ft, 35ft, 665tons, 10ft, GM, 1600

(6) AM 480 Class, Netherlands, 480-485,172ft, 36ft, 735tons, 10ft, 15.5k, GM, 1600

(2) AM 498 Class, Norway, 498-499,171ft, 35ft, 750tons, 11ft, 15.5k GM, 1600

(5)AM 503 Class, Belgium, 503-504,515-516,522,172ft5", 35ft, 780tons, 11ft, 14k,GM, 1600

(4) AM 506 Class, Italy, 506-507,517-518,173ft, 35ft, 665tons, 10ft, 15k, GM, 1600

(4) ACME Class, 508-511,173ft, 36ft, 750tons, 14ft, 8,70, 14k, Packard, 2280
Divisional Flag Facilities

(3) ABILITY Class, 519-521,190ft, 36ft, 934tons, 12ft, 8,75, 15k, GM, 2700
Divisional Flag Facilities


OCEAN MINESWEEPERS (MSO) : PROPOSED
MSO 523 thru MSO 538....16 Ocean Minesweepers
Displacement: 1,000 tons full load
Length: 200 feet overall
Main engines: Diesel
Wooden Hulls

A new class of minesweeper was proposed (Ship Characteristics Board No. 501)combining the capabilities of Ocean Minesweepers (MSO) and Coastal Minehunters (MHC) using Shadowgraph/Sea Nettle and SQQ-14 sonar.

Similar in design to the "Ability" class but larger. Four ships authorized in the Fiscal Year 1964 shipbuilding program, five in FY 1967, and seven in FY 1968. Estimated cost per ship was $8.7 million.

They were to be built in FY'68 by Stowman SB Corp., but was cancelled. However the money appropriated for their construction was reallocated and rescinded by Congress in FY 69 because of difficulties encountered in design and contracting procedures. The Department of Defense planned to request funding for the 16 minesweepers in the FY 1971 thru 1973 shipbuilding programs. Estimated cost per ship was increased to $9.0 million. (see Developments in Wooden Minesweeper Hull Design Since World War II). The program was ended about 1971 when Admiral Elmo Zumwalt decided that future assault sweeps would be conducted by helicopters.

During June of 1979, several alternative program approaches were being evaluated in replacing the aging MSO 422/508 ocean minesweeper fleet. The Chief of Naval Operations approved the basic MSO 523 ship design as a candidate for the new Mine Countermeasures (MCM 1) class ship and directed that variations of the MSO 523 design be investigated. In consideration of operational and mission requirements, the most appropriate alternative was selected in countering the open ocean mine threat. This "trade off" analysis, completed during March of 1980, was in lieu of a formal preliminary design effort. MSO class ships were never built and were superseded by new designs. MCM, and later the MSH (unsuccessful),and MHC class.

The MCM contract design was completed in February 1982, and the leadship (AVENGER MCM 1) construction contract was awarded in June 1982.

Story of the Cardinal Class Minesweeper
The Navy tried to develop a Air-Cushion mine hunter, "Cardinal" class (MSH) to supplement the "Avenger" (MCM) class in the early 1980's. They were not successful, and thus the "Osprey" class (MHC) was developed.
MSH Class


MODERNIZATION:
As an interim step to the new MSO's proposed above, all ocean minesweepers in commission during the mid-1960's were to have been modernized. In fiscal 1968 a program was begun to modernize the existing MSO's (Ships Characteristics Board No. 502) with the first (MSO-423&441) starting 8-31-68.

Estimated cost and schedule per ship were $5 million and ten months in the shipyard. However, some of the early modernization's took as long as 26 months which, coupled with changes in mine countermeasure techniques and with the shift of emphasis to minesweeping helicopters, led to cancellation of the entire modernization program after only 13 ships had been fully modernized.

Ships Fully Modernized (SCB# 502): MSO-
433,437,438,441,442,443,445,446,448,449,456,488,490.

The modernization provided improvements in mine detection, AN/SQQ-14 (nicknamed "Squeaky 14") sonar made by General Electric, with mine classification as well as detection capability provided, engines, [four Waukesha Motors Co. diesel engines installed to replace the Packard engines that were originally in some of the ships, (plus two or three diesel generators for sweep gear)], advanced communications equipment fitted, and habitability improved [retrofitted with Chill water Air conditioning. The Chill water coolers and compressors were located off the Main deck close to amidships....Allen Black ENC (Ret.) Nimble, Exultant] , twin 20 mm gun or combination .50 caliber mg/81 mm mortar in some ships (replacing single 40 mm gun because of space requirements for sonar hoist mechanism)[The Fortify we had both the 40MM and SQQ-14,about six feet between the two...Jim Van Ry USS Fortify.],[some? ships modernized after 1970? had guns removed (MSO 437,439,490)]. Bridge structure in modernized ships extend around mast and aft to funnel. Complement in modernized ships is 6 officers and 70 enlisted men.

Ships fitted with AN/SQQ-14 sonars have a massive external hoist forward of the bridge, in place of the single 40mm gun formerly mounted there. Some ships have a single 20mm gun forward, some have two .50 Caliber machine guns, some are unarmed.

MSO Converted At Awarded Date Started Decommissioned Re-Commissioned
423 Bethlehem Steel Corp.
Baltimore, MD
5/7/68 8/31/68 unknown Caught fire
on October 6, 1969
and was later stricken
433 Dillingham Shipyard
Honolulu, Hawaii
5/15/68 10/31/68 Stayed in Commission 8/14/70
437 Harbor Boat Building 6/30/70 10/30/70 10/30/70 8/27/71
438 Harbor Boat Building 6/30/70 9/30/70 9/30/70 8/1/71
441 Beth., Baltimore, MD 5/7/68 8/31/68 Stayed in commission 6/8/70
442 Beth., Baltimore 5/7/68 9/30/68 Stayed in commission 10/19/70
443 Beth., Baltimore 5/7/68 9/30/68 Stayed in commission 12/9/70
445 Dillingham 5/15/68 12/31/68 Stayed in commission 4/7/71
446 Dillingham 5/15/68 10/31/68 Stayed in commission 9/28/70
448 Harbor Boat Building 6/30/70 11/30/70 11/30/70 unknown
449 Dillingham 5/15/68 11/30/68 Stayed in commission 12/4/71
456 Dillingham 5/15/68 11/30/68 Stayed in commission 2/10/71
457 Replaced by 445, 1/69        
460       5/14/70 Cancelled 10/16/1970
and the hulk was scrapped
468       6/10/70 Cancelled 10/16/1970
and the hulk was scrapped
470       5/14/70 Cancelled 10/16/1970
and the hulk was scrapped
472       7/16/70 Cancelled 10/16/1970
and the hulk was scrapped
488 Harbor Boat Building 6/30/70 10/30/70 10/30/70 10/21/71
490 Harbor Boat Building 6/30/70 11/30/70 11/30/70 2/11/72
519       6/70 Cancelled 10/16/1970
and the hulk was scrapped

From an examination of the personnel diary's of MSO 437 thru MSO 490 it appears that most of the ships stayed in commission, with reduced crew size during modernization.

All of the 64-65 then in service were not modernized. Modernization of five (MSO 460,468,470,472,and 519) were cancelled 10/16/1970 and the hulks were scrapped. MSO-423 while in the shipyard undergoing modernization, caught fire on October 6, 1969 and was later stricken.

Ships Partially Modernized: MSO
427,428,429,431,432,435,439,440,455,458,463,464,489,491,492,496,508,509,510,511.

Some MSO's received AN/SQQ-14 sonar but not full modernization.


Panel on Undersea Warfare,Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces, Naval Studies Board:(1997)

The panel believes that MCM systems, concepts, and technologies that are available in the near term, when integrated with present capabilities, will provide the Navy and Marine Corps team with the ability to clear mines in stride.

Anticipating the inevitable retirement of the Avenger-class MCM ship, consideration should be given to a next-generation MCM ship, substantially smaller and lighter than the current classes, capable of operating with improved effectiveness in sea state 4 conditions, and carried on a mother ship capable of transporting up to 10 of the improved MCM units. This support vessel should also carry up to eight of the latest MCM vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft; it would include the command, control, and communications capabilities of the current MCM command ship.

Although the Navy's current MCM force may be the most capable in the world, it is inadequate for the challenges of the future. This is a result of the refocusing of the Navy's strategy on the littorals, the lack of a sufficiently aggressive and focused research and development program, and the failure to view MCM as a complete system and provide it with sufficient sustained support from research and development through fleet introduction and operations.

The Navy's newest minehunter The SWATH Mine Hunter (MHS-1)

Technology Update 2001

August 13, 2001

Report: U.S. Navy Must Focus On Mine Warfare Capabilities By Tom Canahuate, DefenseNews.com Staff Writer

WASHINGTON - The U.S. Navy needs to replace its single and aging mine countermeasures ship, the USS Inchon, with a new hull in the near-term and consider for the long term building several ships dedicated to mine warfare in the littoral areas of the world's oceans, according to a draft report from the U.S. National Research Council.

The report recommended the Navy make mine warfare a major focus and increase the budget for this specialty by 30 percent, according to an executive summary of the study, "Naval Mine Warfare: Operational and Technical Challenges," obtained by DefenseNews.com Aug. 13. The Navy plans to spend approximately $4.6 billion during the next seven years on its mine warfare capabilities.

Acknowledging the Navy's shortcomings in this area, a Navy official told DefenseNews.com Aug. 13, "The Navy is working hard to improve its mine warfare capabilities." The official said the service has seven mine warfare programs under way to address the shortcomings.

The study, conducted at the request of Adm. Vernon Clark, chief of naval operations, urged the Navy and Marine Corps "to establish mine warfare as a major naval warfare area ... and should review the allocation of funds by warfare area in the future year defense program, with a view to finding ways to increase funding in the mine warfare area."

Dave Steigman, naval analyst with Teal Group, Fairfax, Va., told DefenseNews.com Aug. 13, "Mine warfare continues to be the stepchild of the U.S. Navy, although some capabilities have improved since the 1991 Gulf War."

The study, which will be published later this year, said the Navy needs to apply more resources toward developing intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities, saying they are "at the heart of mine warfare."

Given the Navy's shift to conducting operations in littoral areas of the world, the report concluded the service needs to be able to both counter mines and conduct mine warfare operations anywhere in the world. The National Research Council said the service is ill prepared for mine warfare in littoral waters.

The National Research Council is an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, and conducts research projects at the request of the U.S. government.


JESUS Cross
For God So Loved The World...
John 3:16

"I Know Whom I Have Believed"
2 Timothy 1:12

What does this mean?


Copyright© 2002-2007 Dick Lewis.
All rights reserved.


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